Which is better to learn - Spark or Hadoop?

Which is better to learn – Spark or Hadoop?

Today, we have lots of free large data processing solutions. Many organizations are also able to provide the open-source platform with customized business features. The trend began with Apache Lucene’s development in 1999. The framework quickly grew open and led to Hadoop being created. Today, two of the most widely used big data processing frameworks, Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark, are available.

Two distinct frameworks that have similarities and distinctions are Spark and Hadoop. As the most active open source project Big Data, Spark has eclipsed Hadoop. Although they are not directly comparable products, they both have many similar purposes.

They both have unique advantages and disadvantages. There is no precise response because these systems are distinct for comparison. In both of them, everyone can find some helpful new features. Let’s begin with the history of these two.

Spark and Hadoop are frameworks, and the main aims are generic data analysis and computer cluster distribution. Spark is executed at the top of Hadoop clusters and is also available in the data storage of Hadoop (HDFS).

Hadoop’s fundamental objective is to map/reduce jobs and establish a parallel structured data treatment system. The primary aim of using Hadoop is that frameworks supported by several models and Spark are merely an alternative kind of Hadoop, but not a substitute.

Why should you learn Hadoop and Spark?

Learn the basics of Hadoop and Spark together because they interconnect their distinctive individualities in numerous ways. When Hadoop reads and types HDFS data, Spark employs a robust distributed data set to handle RAM data (RDD). Spark can, however, run separately or as the data source together with a Hadoop cluster. Hiring managers and corporations are interested from a skill point of view in professional people with a high level of expertise in Hadoop and Spark.

Which is better: Spark or Hadoop?

Spark uses more RAM rather than the network and disc I/O. Compared to Hadoop, it is relatively quick. However, because it requires enormous RAM, it has to produce efficient results via a specific high-end physical machine.

Everything depends, and the fact that this decision changes dynamically with time depends upon variables.

Differences between Spark & Hadoop:

  • Performance:

Spark is quick due to its in-memory processing. It can also use the disc to fit into memory for data. In-memory processing from Spark provides insights almost in real-time. Spark is ideal for processing credit card systems, machine learning, analytics of security, and Internet sensors.

Hadoop was initially installed to collect data from several sources continuously, without worrying about the data and saving it in the distributed environment. Batch processing is used for MapReduce. MapReduce was never developed for real-time processing, although parallel processing over distributed datasets is the core notion underlying YARN.

The difficulty in comparing the two is that they perform distinct processing.

  • Ease of use:

Spark offers Scala, Java, Python, and Spark SQL user-friendly APIs. Spark SQL is much like SQL. Therefore SQL developers can learn it more easily. To consult and do other tasks and have rapid feedback, Spark also provides an interactive shell.

Either utilizing a shell or integrating it with several tools like Sqoop, Flume, you can ingest data in Hadoop. YARN is only a processing frame and may be combined with many instruments such as Hive and Pig. HIVE is a data warehousing component that reads, writes, and manages big data sets through a SQL interface in a distributed context. This Hadoop ecosystem blog is available for you to learn about the many technologies that Hadoop can integrate.

  • Costs:

Both Hadoop and Spark are open-source Apache projects. Thus there are no software costs. Infrastructure costs are only related. Both devices have been developed to work on low-TCO Commodity Hardware.

You might now wonder how they are different. Storage & processing is disc-based in Hadoop, and Hadoop utilizes conventional memory quantities. So, we need much disc space and quicker drives using Hadoop. To distribute I/O disc, Hadoop requires several systems.

Apache Spark demands a significant bit of memory in-memory processing. However, it can handle the typical speed and volume of the disc. Since disc space is a relatively cheap commodity and Spark does not use I/O for memory, it requires a significant quantity of RAM to run it all. Spark’s system, therefore, entails additional costs.

However, one crucial point to remember is that the technologies of Spark reduce the number of systems necessary. It requires considerably less costly methods. Thus, even with the higher RAM needed, Spark will lower expenses per calculation unit.

  • Data processing:

Batch processing and stream processing are two methods of data processing.

  • Batch processing: In the realm of Big Data, batch processing was vital. Batch processing works simply by collecting enormous amounts of data over some time.
  • Stream processing: The current trend in the realm of big data is stream processing. Speed and real-time information are the time required, which is the processing of steam.
  • Security:

Hadoop supports authentication for Kerberos, but it’s hard to handle. However, the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) system enables third-party authentication providers. They can also be encoded. HDFS supports both regular file permissions and access checklists (ACLs). Hadoop provides Authorization for Service Level, ensuring that customers receive the correct job authorizations.

Spark can integrate with HDFS, and it can use HDFS ACLs and file-level permissions. Spark can also run on YARN leveraging the capability of Kerberos.


Spark stores in-memory data while Hadoop stores on disc data. To accomplish defect tolerance, Hadoop uses replication. In contrast, Spark uses various data storage models, the resilient distributed information sets (DDSs), using a wise manner to ensure fault tolerance to minimize the I/O network.

Hadoop has been the premier open-source Big Data framework for many years. Still, recently Spark has become the most popular of the two tools of Apache Software Foundation.

However, they do the same tasks and cannot exclude each other because they can cooperate. Although in some instances, Spark is estimated to work up to 100 times quicker than Hadoop, you cannot provide its own distributed storage system.